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Saturday, December 01, 2012

Condensed Aerosol untuk fire suppression


Condensed aerosol fire suppression

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Nozzle of a mounted aerosol fire suppression system
Condensed aerosol fire suppression is a particle-based form of fire extinction similar to gaseous fire suppression or dry chemical fire extinction. The aerosol employs a fire extinguishing agent consisting of very fine solid particles and gaseous matter to extinguish fires. The condensed aerosol microparticles and effluent gases are generated by the exothermic reaction; until discharged from the device, the particles remain in vapor state. They are cooled and "condensed" within the device and discharged as solid particles.
To the difference of gaseous suppressants, which emit only gas, and dry chemical suppression agents, which are powder-like particles of a large size (25-150 micrometres), condensed aerosols are defined by the National Fire Protection Association as releasing finely-divided solids of less than 10 micrometres in diameter. The solid particulates have a considerably smaller mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) those of dry chemical suppression agents, remain airborne significantly longer, and leave much less residue within the protected area. Whereas dry chemical systems must be directly aimed at the flame, condensed aerosols are flooding agents and therefore effective regardless of the location and height of the fire. Wet chemical systems, such as the kind generally found in foam extinguishers, must, similarly to dry chemical systems, be sprayed directionally onto the fire. The condensed aerosol agent can be delivered by means of mechanical operation, electric operation, or combined electro-mechanical operation.

Contents

  [hide

[edit]Methods of fire extinction

Fire tetrahedon
Condensed aerosol suppressants, like gaseous suppressants, use four methods to extinguish fires. They act on the four elements of the "fire tetrahedron," the disparate components that combine to create the chemical reaction underlying any fire. These four means of fire extinction are:
  1. Reduction or isolation of fuel
  2. Reduction of heat
  3. Reduction or isolation of oxygen
  4. Inhibiting the chain reaction of the above components
Condensed aerosols’ primary extinguishing mechanism involves the fourth element of the fire tetrahedron by means of chemical reactions with the free radicals of the flame, therefore interfering with the combustion process of the fire. Typically, condensed aerosol particulates consist of potassium carbonate (K2CO3)) that are produced from the thermal decomposition of a solid aerosol-forming compound that includes potassium nitrate as an oxidizer. As the aerosol particles surround and come into contact with the flame, the particulates absorb the flame heat energy, breaking down and releasing large concentrations of potassium radicals (K+) (ions with an unpaired electron). The potassium radicals bond with the hydroxide (OH+), hydrogen (H+) and oxygen (O+) free radicals which sustain flame's combustion process, producing harmless by-product molecules such as potassium hydroxide (KOH) and water (H2O).
K• + OH• = KOH
KOH + H• = K• + H2O
The potassium radicals are propagated since they are both consumed and produced by reaction with the fire radicals. Disrupting the reactions necessary to sustain the flame's combustion, the cycle continues until the combustion's chain reactions are terminated and the flame is extinguished.
Condensed aerosol agents also have secondary extinguishing mechanisms implicating the other three elements of the fire tetrahedron described above. The aerosol cools the flame by engulfing it with a cloud with large concentrations of microparticles which have mass median aerodynamic diameter sizes (MMAD) as small as 1 to 2 micrometres. Though the surface area of each microparticle is extremely small, the large quantity of particles surrounding and penetrating the flame offers a sufficiently large combined surface area to absorb the flame’s heat. On the surface of the particles, recombination of the fire radicals takes place as energy is absorbed:
O• + H• = OH•
H• + OH• = H20
Flame is the gaseous part of a fire resulting from the combustion of fuel. Aerosols particles and gases mixing with the gaseous components of the flame isolate the fire's fuel.
Attacking all the elements of the fire tetrahedron, condensed aerosol fire suppression agents are among the more effective flame-extinguishing agents. For example, some condensed aerosol fire suppressants can extinguish a Class B flammable liquid pool fire with 1/5th the amount of Halon 1301 agent or 1/10th the amount of a hydrofluorocarbon or fluoroketone based clean agent gaseous fire suppression system in terms of kilogram mass of agent per cubic meter.[1]

[edit]Performance

Fire, T1, at 35.25 seconds, before application of condensed aerosol suppressant
Fire, T2, at 36.13 seconds, as condensed aerosol suppressant is just deployed
Fire, T3, at 36.20 seconds, as condensed aerosol suppressant has been deployed
Fire, T4, at 36.25 seconds, fully extinguished after application of condensed aerosol suppressant
The extinguishing performance of condensed aerosol fire suppressants is dependent on the density of aerosol particulates in the immediate vicinity of the flame. As with gaseous fire suppression systems, the faster the agent can build around the flame, the more efficient the extinguishing agent will be in terminating the flame’s combustion process. The extinguishing and design densities of aerosol fire suppression agents are generally expressed in kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m^3). Thus, the efficiency of aerosol extinguishing agents varies depending on a number of factors, such as the location of the aerosol relative to the flame, the proximity of other combustible flammable materials, the type of fuel involved, etc.
Condensed aerosol devices are designed to provide a controlled discharge. The aerosol-forming compound is installed inside of the device, which is then fitted with an electric or mechanical initiator. The electric initiator is interfaced with a fire detection control unit or panel, which can be remotely operated by physical means such as by cable, hand operated with a fuse mechanism such as those used in smoke dispensing grenades, or automatic and self-triggering when outfitted with an integral heat-sensing device.

[edit]Uses and applications

There are two uses for applying fire extinguishing agents: as a total flooding fire protection system or as a local application fire suppression system.
To provide total flooding fire suppression, the total quantity of aerosol required to extinguish a fire inside of fixed space must be determined. The corresponding number of aerosol devices that would collectively discharge the aerosol quantity required are then mounted, typically on the ceiling or wall. Aerosol devices equipped with electric initiators are interconnected and relayed by a fire alarm control panel. Because the aerosol devices are self-contained and function as both a storage container and as a nozzle that propels the gas, no distribution network is required to transport or distribute the fire-extinguishing agent from a remote storage location, resulting in floor space savings and transportation efficiency gains.
Local application fire suppression is typically applied by a handheld portable device tossed directly toward the fire. Unlike streaming portable fire extinguishing units, the operators are not required to place themselves at risk by approaching the fire while applying the extinguishing agent directly at the flames. The portable condensed aerosol device is typically designed to disperse aerosol in a 360° spray pattern, forming a large aerosol cloud around the vicinity of the fire. The aerosol immediately attacks the flames as its particles approach the fire and generate flame-neutralizing potassium radicals. The flames are suppressed as long as the aerosol retains sufficient density. If the aerosol fails to achieve sufficient density to extinguish the fire, it will still suppress the fire, which will retain significantly lower heat. This offers firefighters, for instance, a tool to bring down flames to a manageable heat level and reduce room temperatures while the hose team enters the burning area. As another example, First Responders can deploy condensed aerosols within an enclosed area to suppress fires while evacuating occupants to safety.[2]
Condensed aerosol systems are suitable for special hazards applications as replacements for Halon 1301 systems and high-pressure carbon dioxide systems. Aerosol systems can also be used as alternatives to clean agent gaseous suppressants or water-mist systems.[1]

[edit]Environmental issues

The United States Environmental Protection Agency has approved condensed aerosol fire suppression systems as acceptable substitutes for Halon 1301 in Total Flooding Systems.[3] Aerosol extinguishers are also non-ozone depleting and carry little or no global warming potential.

[edit]

Thursday, November 29, 2012

Mengenal Fungsi Dan Komponen Panel Listrik


Mengenal Fungsi Dan Komponen Panel Listrik

Panel Listrik – Electrical switchboard atau lebih kita kenal dgn panel listrik terbentuk berdasarkan susunan komponen listrik yg sengaja disusun dalam sebuah papan control, sehingga dapat memudahkan penggunaanya.

Tuk lebih mengenal fungsi dari panel listrik kita telebih dahulu mengenal komponen- komponen  panel listrik dan harus memahami  fungsi dari bagian-bagaian listrik itu sendiri
Berikut beberapa komponen panel listrik beserta fungsinya yang perlu anda ketahui:


MCB,  yg singkatan dari ( Miniature Circuit Board) merupakan komponen panel listrik yang berfungsi sebagai switch pembatas arus akibat dari kenaikan daya /tegangan yg melebihi batas dan atau hubung singkat. Komponen panel listrik ini biasanya terbatas pada arus nominal kecil sampai dgn kurang dari 100 Ampere. Bentuknya ada yg satu pole (satu input dan satu output), ada yg dua pole, tiga pole hingga empat pole.



MCCB, MCCB singkatan dari Moulded Case Circuit Breaker. Circuit Breaker pembatas arus apabila terdapat arus beban yg melebihi batas-batasnya. MCCB ini dipakai hampir sama dgn MCB tetapi dgn batas arus beban yg lebih besar dari 100 Ampere sampai dgn 1600 Ampere.

GFCI/ RCCB/ ELCB, Ground Foult Circuit Interruption ialah semacam Circuit Breaker yg bereaksi lebih cepat dari MCB. Komponen panel listrik ini akan memantau listrik lebih rinci dan jika terdapat short atau kabel terkelupas dan mengenai manusia, tidak mengakibatkan kematian.

Grounding, Grounding pada instalasi dan komponen panel listrik ini berfungsi sebagai pengaman listrik. Pengaman listrik akibat dari kabel -kabel yg terkelupas dan mengenai body part peralatan elektonik atau peralatan listrik yg selanjutnya mengenai orang. Dgn adanya komponen panel listrik ini maka aliran arus listrik yg liar atau yg tak berfungsi akan dibumikan

Warna kabel. Warna kabel instalasi listrik sudah ditetapkan diberbagai negara. Tuk Indonesia, warna kabel listrik ditentukan menurut standard SNI atau standatd IEC:
a. warna merah, kuning, hitam berfungsi untuk fase
b. warna biru muda (biru laut) berfungsi untuk netral
c. warna kuning -hijau berfungsi untuk ground


CT, CT merupakan  suatu komponen panel listrik dari bahan baja / metal dalam bentuk lingkaran (ring) atau gelang persegi dan tengahnya berlubang. Fungsi dari komponen panel listrik ini yaitu sebagai penurun arus dan atau tegangan pada box panel .

Surge Arrest, peralatan atau komponen panel listrik ini sebagai pengaman listrik dari kejutan listrik yg berlebihan. Contohnya apabila ada kejadian tiba-tiba aliran listrik menjadi lebih tinggi akibat dari penambahan energi potensial





Panel Distribusi Listrik
Definisi Panel Distribusi Listrik
Panel ditribusi listrik adalah tempat menyalurkan energi listrik dari panel daya atau sumber listrik ke beban baik untuk instalasi tenaga maupun instalasi penerangan.
Persyaratan panel ditribusi listrik sesuai dengan PUIL yaitu :
a) Semua penghantar/ kabel harus disusun rapi
b) Semua komponen harus dipasang rapi
c) Semua bagian yang bertegangan harus terlindungi
d) Semua komponen sudah terpasang kuat
e) Jika terjadi gangguan tidak meluas
f) Mudah diperluas / dikembangkan jika diperlukan

g) Mempunyai keandalan yang tinggi
Gambar Diagram Panel Distribusi Listrik

Wednesday, November 28, 2012

Solusi Jaringan untuk UKM


The significant driver for today’s economy is the small, medium and micro-sized enterprises (SMMEs) in terms of development and innovation to the economic integration and competitiveness. “Start-ups” and “Young Entrepreneurs” gradually play more important role in this segment (2012 APEC Leaders' Declaration).
The right information and communication technologies (ICT) help these small guys stay focused on their core competency in order to compete against big players. DrayTek hence launches SMEE Business Network Solutions to offer the state-of-the-art solutions at the affordable price for SMMEs.

Reliable connectivity
The dual WAN interface of the Vigor routers avoids the Internet connection downtime from one single Internet Service Provider (ISP). The Vigor routers offer WAN connection failover and load-balancing to ensure your organization to stay connected. The USB port acts as USB WAN for 3.5G/4G LTE mobile broadband, another practical way to backup the access.

Utilization of cloud-based applications
The Vigor routers can handle the Internet feed over 100Mbps for the bandwidth consumed cloud-based applications. This drives down the SMEEs’ initial investment and allows them to only adopt the thin client hardware for the better bottom line.

Robust firewall protection
DrayTek implements the advanced firewall features to ensure the network security. Business users can avoid the damage cost by outside attacks and internal inappropriate activities.

Multi-site secure communication
The VPN feature can deliver the secure remote access for both site-to-site and client-site needs. In addition to the data exchange, the VoIP over VPN feature prevent the essential conversation from eavesdropping.

Bring Your Own Device (BYOD)
DrayTek delivers the secure 802.11n Wi-Fi to satisfy BYOD demands. You can choose the access point to extending coverage for the better collaboration.

Employee productivity optimization
The recommended Vigor routers all work with the Smart Monitor Traffic Analyzer to help the management team reduce employees’ time waste on unnecessary activities.

The DrayTek SMEE Business Network Solutions provides advanced hardware and software product lineup to establish a secure and productive workplace with ease.



  • WAN failover and load-balancing
Dual WAN and USB WAN (3.5G/4G LTE) ensure reliable connectivity.
(e.g. Vigor2830 Series)
3 WAN



  • High-speed Internet for cloud-based applications
Your thin client PCs can run those mission-critical business applications offered by the Cloud.
(e.g. Vigor2920 Series)

2920-cloud



  • Firewall with Content Security Management
CSM (Content Security Management) enables users to control and manage IM (Instant Messenger) and P2P (Peer-to-Peer) applications more efficiently.
firewall



  • VPN protection for secure remote access
Vigor solutions support both LAN-to-LAN (site-to-site) and Remote dial-in (client-to-site) in PPTP/L2TP/IPSec that helps tele-worker access corporate data/application in anytime/anywhere.

vpn-1



  • Advance management of WLAN network (BYOD)
Offer multiple encryption / MAC address control and separate guest and private areas by Multi-SSID
WLAN 
Extending wireless connection
wds


  • Smart Monitor Traffic Analyzer
    No matter network logging record, e-mail record or IM chatting record, or file downloading, SIP call, VPN connection and more. “Timeline” feature gives you in-depth understanding how every employee spends the working hours in order to find way to enhance productivity.
Smart Monitor timeline

Tips untuk Audit software dan aggrement nya..


Tips for Software Audit and Agreements

Steps to complete Software Audit
  • Collect and review all software acquisition records.
  • Collect and review all software license agreements.
  • Select a process or tool for the internal software review.
  • Decide whether employees will be notified in advance. If employees are to be notified in advance, send an explanatory memorandum. If employees are not notified in advance, be respectful of employee property. It is always possible that you may find a program that does not belong to the company, but is an employee's legitimate property. Do not erase any software without first consulting the employee on whose PC the program is found.
  • Determine who should be involved in the review. Suggestions: MIS Director, Senior Management/Staff Legal Counsel, Department Heads, Outside Legal Counsel/Auditor.
  • Conduct the review. If using a software discovery tool, skip to step 8
  • If physically checking machines follow these procedures: Locate all personal computers, including portable computers. If the facility is large, mark locations on a floor plan. When a PC is not accessible, make a note to search the hard disk at a later time. Print a list of directories for each hard disk, determining if and how software are can be downloaded onto a hard disk from your local area networks. It may be necessary to search several drives, i.e., C, D, E, and F and subdirectories of each drive. Searching the directory on a Macintosh system may involve opening folders within other folders to find all applications. Programs will generally be identified using abbreviations like WP for WordPerfect, 123 for Lotus 1-2-3, SK for Sidekick, WS for WordStar, etc. Take an inventory of floppy disks and available documentation if software is not stored on hard disks.
  • Compare software found on hard disks with acquisition records. Alternatively locate authorized disks and/or documentation for each software program listed on a hard disk.
  • Review organizational policies on the use of software on home computers.
  • Consult employees who are using software programs where there are no records or disks. (An employee may be using his or her own purchased software on the office computer. If so, the employee should be required to demonstrate that the software is legitimate and not pirated. Ideally this software should be removed or purchased by your organization)
  • Destroy any unauthorized copies of software and record work. List personnel who need to be supplied with genuine software.
  • Publish corporate policy of software use, and request employee sign off.
  • Document list of standardized software based on evaluation of software installed and communicate required software to be supported to helpdesk personnel.
  • Document processes for storage of media, documentation and proof of license.
  • Document products and processes for data storage, disaster recovery planning and testing, security against hackers, viruses, spam and spyware.
  • Ensure you have the software installed on all your platforms (UNIX, Linux, MAC, etc) since some of the big ticket items are sitting on those.
Note: It is very essential to remember and set aside the time for "normalizing" the data collected by any discovery tool to ensure accuracy and account for applications not recognized by the tool. This can be a very time consuming task and seeking expert assistance might make sense.

Get your Software Agreements Done This Way --->

Following are the steps to be taken before purchasing commercial software
Gap Analaysis
To start with perform a Gap Analysis. Take a detailed look at your licensing status for various Software you use. This requires some form of software inventory tool to find out what is installed and usually involves some level of data cleansing to in order to build a clean inventory of installed assets. Collect anywhere up to six years worth of historical license records from the Sysadmin team and vendor, their contracts, purchase history and build a statement of entitlement. Subsequently provide a licensing status report.
Fiscal Analysis
Check your pockets. Use data from the Gap Analysis and look at what the IT team is planning 3 to 6 years from now. Look at what projects you have on the horizon, the strategic plans and compare and contrast this to the vendors roadmap and upgrade plans. Ensure the relevant agreements are in place and look at the various options available to the IT admin. Finally look at the ramifications 3 to 6 years down the line for each agreement option. How it works out in terms of their projects, financials and their agreements.
Plan the Negotiation
Finally begin to plan for the negotiation. This part is rarely performed before a negotiation - even when millions of dollars are at stake. There is no negotiation strategy. Work with the team to define the goals of the negotiation of the new contract. How much are you going to spend? What is your budget? Set out the differences between maintenance payments and new licenses and agree soft objectives such as support benefits, training vouchers and training.

Tuesday, November 27, 2012

Beragam platform Load balancing dari JetNexus


jetNEXUS Application Delivery Control Technology 
Load Balancing Platforms
jetNEXUS ADC and load balancing solutions are available in a variety of formats to offer great flexibility for easy integration into client networks. This document is designed to help you decide which platform is best suited for your environment. 
Hardware Load Balancer 
A Hardware load balancer is a more traditional approach to load balancing. A hardware load balancer is an appliance platform meaning that it is a fully integrated solution - Software, custom OS and specialised hardware designed to reliably run together. A Hardware load balancer can be easily installed and removed from the network with no third party dependencies – Except the network!

Advantages . Predictable and quantified performance
. Complete solution
. One vendor to manage
. Simplified support model
. No understanding of OS or hardware compatibility required 

Hardware Load Balancer Products available:

Hardware Load Balancer Configurations

Hardware Load Balancer Configurations
Virtual Appliance Load Balancer 
A virtual Load Balancer is based on the principle of virtualisation and, more specifically, virtual machines.

A virtual machine is a self contained software product including an operating system and application designed to run in a virtual environment such as VMware or Microsoft Virtual Server.

Traditionally virtual load balancers have not been able to perform as well as required, however, with significant improvements in virtualisation technology and hardware performance, this is no longer the case.

Multiple jetNEXUS Virtual Appliances can be run across multiple virtual servers providing the same level of resilience as the hardware appliance. 

Advantages . Improve IT resource utilisation
. Reduce Power requirements
. Increased flexibility for deployment
. Highly scalable solution
. Space savings
. Can be deployed as clustered configuration for resilience


Virtual Load Balancer Products Available

Virtual Appliance Load Balancing Configuration

Virtual Appliance Load Balancing Configuration
ISO Software Load Balancer 
As the power capabilities of standard computing hardware has evolved, so has the development of load balancing software solutions that can be installed on standard hardware and Operating Systems. The jetNEXUS ISO software Load Balancer is a fully integrated solution complete with operating system and installer in one. This type of solution delivers maximum flexibility to users, enabling them to take the powerful architecture of a hardware solution and build onto almost any server hardware platform of their choice. 

Advantages . Fully integrated software product with OS
. Eliminate requirement for dedicated specialised hardware
. Easy to deploy
. Environmentally responsible solution
. Can be configured as a pair for high availability


Software Load Balancer Products Available

Software Load Balancing Configuration

Software Load Balancing Configuration